Entropy Keycrypt


Glossary of Terms

In cryptography and information theory Entropy refers to the degree of unpredictable randomness present in a system, it is also the name of our app.

In the context of the Entropy app, a secret is usually a password, passphrase or other key that can be used by family or trusted associates to access secured data.

Confidential Information
Confidential information refers to data or knowledge that is intended to be kept secret and restricted from unauthorized access or dissemination. Such information may have value or sensitivity, and its disclosure could result in potential harm, whether financial, competitive, or personal. Examples include trade secrets, personal identification data, business strategies, and proprietary research.

Secured Data
Secured data pertains to confidential information safeguarded by protective measures, ensuring access is limited to those possessing a specific secret. Examples include encrypted files, devices, or accounts.

A share contains mathematical data and represents a fraction of a secret. The full secret can only be reconstructed when a specific number of these unique shares come together, meeting a defined quorum.

In the context of secret sharing and data security, a shareholder is an individual or entity that holds a specific share of a larger secret. This share contains mathematical data, and only by combining a predefined number of these shares can the full secret be reconstructed. Each shareholder plays a crucial role in safeguarding and eventually reconstructing the complete secret.

Used interchangably with Shareholder in parts of this documentation.

The minimum number of unique shares required to reconstruct a secret.

Sealed Secret
A sealed secret is divided into seperate share groups to prevent collusion. Typically, one group of shares goes to your legal team, the other to family. The secret can only be reconstructed when a quorum of both groups are combined.

Metadata refers to `data about data'. It provides descriptive details that give context or additional information about other data. For example, in the context of Entropy, metadata might include details such as the length of the secret, the number of shares created, and the quorum. In other contexts, metadata can describe the structure, type, and constraints of the data within a container. While often used to facilitate the organization, search, and retrieval of data, metadata also has implications in privacy and security, as it can unintentionally reveal information about the data's source, structure, or context.

Recovery Phrase
A recovery phrase, often referred to as a seed phrase or mnemonic phrase, is a series of typically 12 to 24 words generated by cryptocurrency wallets. Wallets such as Bitcoin Core, Electrum, Ledger, Trezor, MetaMask, and many others support this feature. This sequence of words acts as a backup to restore and access the wallet's contents, including its private keys and the funds stored within. If a user encounters issues like device loss, theft, or software malfunction, the recovery phrase ensures they can still retrieve their assets. It's crucial to store this phrase securely and privately, as possession of it grants full access to the linked wallet and its funds. Entropy allows entry of a recovery phrase during the secret preparation process.

BIP 39
BIP39 stands for Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 39. It's a protocol that describes the generation of mnemonic phrases — typically a sequence of 12 to 24 English words. These phrases are used to represent a binary seed, which can be converted into a private key. The primary purpose of BIP39 mnemonic phrases is to simplify the process of backup and recovery of cryptocurrency wallets, ensuring that users can easily recover their funds with the knowledge of the mnemonic, even if they lose access to their original wallet. It's an essential standard in the world of cryptocurrencies, enhancing user-friendliness and security. Entropy supports words from the standard English BIP39 wordlist. We do not perform any checksum or other validations, thereby supporting all current and future wallets that implement BIP39.

Galois Field
A Galois Field is a mathematical structure in which arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are well-defined and can be performed. Galois Fields play a crucial role in many areas of applied mathematics and computer science, especially in coding theory, cryptography, and error-correcting codes. In the context of modern technology, they provide mechanisms for secure data transmission and storage, ensuring data integrity and security.

AEAD Construction
AEAD stands for `Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data'. It is a modern encryption approach that provides both confidentiality and data integrity. In an AEAD construction, not only is the message (or plaintext) encrypted, but there is also an authentication tag generated to ensure that the data hasn't been tampered with. The "Associated Data" part refers to any additional data that needs to be authenticated but not encrypted. This provides two-fold protection: ensuring the secrecy of the message while verifying its integrity upon decryption. Widely used AEAD schemes include AES-GCM and ChaCha20-Poly1305, which are crucial in commonly used secure communications protocols like TLS.

Polynomial Interpolation
Polynomial interpolation is a mathematical method used to determine a polynomial that exactly fits a set of data points. Given 𝒏+𝟏 distinct data points, there exists a unique polynomial of degree 𝒏 that passes through all these points. The primary objective of this technique is to find this polynomial. A common method for polynomial interpolation is the Lagrange form, where the interpolating polynomial is represented as a linear combination of basis polynomials. Polynomial interpolation is crucial in numerical analysis and computer science, aiding in tasks like function approximation, data fitting, and error correction.